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OIG Finds IMRT Planning Overpayments

Published on 

Tuesday, August 28, 2018

 | FAQ 
 | Billing 
 | OIG 

Some bundles are great – a bundle may refer to a “bundle” of money; you can have bundles of fun; or expecting parents look forward to their little bundle of joy. Other bundles – not so great. One such bundle that is not a bundle of fun is the bundled payment Medicare makes for Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) planning services. Payment bundles are fairly common in the Medicare world, but the onus is on providers to understand appropriate billing rules so they are not overpaid for bundled services. A recent Office of Inspector General (OIG) report found errors in IMRT planning billing that resulted in over $25 million in Medicare overpayments for the audit period (2013-2015). The report recommended education for providers on billing IMRT planning services correctly, and edits in Medicare’s billing system to prevent overpayments.

IMRT uses advanced computer programs to plan and deliver radiation to difficult-to-reach tumors with high precision while reducing exposure to surrounding healthy tissue. IMRT includes planning and delivery services. IMRT planning is a multistep process in which imaging, calculations, and simulations are performed to develop an IMRT treatment plan. Radiation is then delivered to a patient’s tumor at the various intensity levels prescribed in the IMRT treatment plan.

The basic rule for the bundling of IMRT planning services is found in section 200.3.1 of Chapter 4 of the Medicare Claims Processing:

  • “Payment for the services identified by CPT codes 77014, 77280, 77285, 77290, 77295, 77306 through 77321, 77331, and 77370 are included in the APC payment for CPT code 77301 (IMRT planning). These codes should not be reported in addition to CPT code 77301 when provided prior to or as part of the development of the IMRT plan. In addition, CPT codes 77280-77290 (simulation-aided field settings) should not be reported for verification of the treatment field during a course of IMRT.”

As evidenced by the OIG’s recommendations, the primary reasons for overpayments were that hospitals were unfamiliar with or misinterpreted CMS guidance and claim processing edits did not prevent overpayments. One of the biggest challenges for both hospitals and CMS is the bundling applies even to services billed on a different date of service than the comprehensive IMRT planning code (CPT 77301). CMS’s NCCI procedure-to-procedure edits applicable to IMRT planning services only applied to planning services billed on the same date of service as the billing of CPT code 77301 for the bundled payment. This application of bundling to different dates of service may also have caused some confusion for hospitals. The services in the OIG sample were billed on a different date of service from the IMRT planning CPT code 77301.

In analyzing payment data, the OIG noted that complex simulations billed using CPT code 77290 made up approximately 84% of the potential overpayments so that is the code they reviewed. They found that “In each case, a complex simulation was billed with CPT code 77290 on a different date of service from the IMRT planning code (i.e., up to 14 days before CPT code 77301 was billed). However, both services were performed for the same treatment site (e.g., the prostate). According to the independent medical review contractor, for each sampled line item, the complex simulation was performed as a part of the beneficiary’s overall IMRT treatment planning and therefore should not have been billed separately.”

The Claims Processing Manual guidance quoted above was updated after the OIG audit period to clarify that complex simulations are included in the APC payment for IMRT planning services “when provided prior to or as part of the development of the IMRT plan” (emphasis added). That was a step in the right direction but the OIG further recommended that CMS:

  • Implement an edit to prevent improper payments for IMRT planning services that are billed before (e.g., up to 14 days before) IMRT planning CPT code 77301 is billed, and
  • Work with the Medicare contractors to educate hospitals on properly billing Medicare for IMRT planning services.

Hospitals need to evaluate their billing practices for IMRT services now and verify they are not inappropriately billing separately for services included in IMRT planning. After all, a little OIG audit would not be a bundle of joy.

Article Author: Debbie Rubio, BS MT (ASCP)
Debbie Rubio, BS MT (ASCP), was the Manager of Regulatory Affairs and Compliance at Medical Management Plus, Inc. Debbie has over twenty-seven years of experience in healthcare including nine years as the Clinical Compliance Coordinator at a large multi-facility health system. In her current position, Debbie monitors, interprets and communicates current and upcoming regulatory and compliance issues as they relate to specific entities concerning Medicare and other payers.

This material was compiled to share information.  MMP, Inc. is not offering legal advice. Every reasonable effort has been taken to ensure the information is accurate and useful.