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CMS Considers Changes to Lab Date of Service Policy

Published on 

Tuesday, September 3, 2019

Back in 2017, I wrote the section below about changes to the laboratory date-of-service policy changes from the 2018 OPPS Final Rule. The importance of laboratory date of service (DOS) requirements is that they are used to determine whether a hospital bills Medicare directly for a clinical diagnostic laboratory test (CDLT) or whether the laboratory performing the test bills Medicare. Remember, most CDLTs are conditionally packaged under OPPS, and are only paid separately to the hospital when they are: (1) the only service provided to a beneficiary on a claim; (2) considered a preventive service; (3) a molecular pathology test; or (4) an advanced diagnostic laboratory test (ADLT) that meets certain criteria. Preventive services, molecular pathology tests, and ADLTs are assigned an OPPS status indicator (SI) of “A” and paid under the Clinical Lab Fee Schedule (CLFS). CDLTs with an SI of “Q4” are paid separately under the CLFS when they are the only types of services on the claim, but payment is bundled when they appear with other outpatient services.

Excerpt from Prior Wednesday@One Article on Laboratory Date of Service Rule

“Laboratory date of service (DOS) rules start simple:

  1. The DOS for clinical diagnostic laboratory services generally is the date the specimen is collected.
  2. For archived lab specimens that are stored for more than 30 days before testing, the DOS is the date the specimen was obtained from storage.

Now this is where it starts getting complicated with what is known as the 14-day rule.

  1. The DOS is the date the test was performed (instead of the date of collection) if the following conditions are met:
  2. The test is ordered by the patient’s physician at least 14 days following the date of the patient’s discharge from the hospital;
  3. The specimen was collected while the patient was undergoing a hospital surgical procedure;
  4. It would be medically inappropriate to have collected the sample other than during the hospital procedure for which the patient was admitted;
  5. The results of the test do not guide treatment provided during the hospital stay; and
  6. The test was reasonable and medically necessary for the treatment of an illness.
  7. Another 14-day rule applies to chemotherapy sensitive tests performed on live tissue under the same conditions as described above with only slight variation to the first condition:
  8. The decision regarding the specific chemotherapeutic agents to test is made at least 14 days after discharge;

Both of these 14-day rules apply to hospital inpatients and outpatients and the key point is that the test is ordered at least 14 days after discharge.  These DOS requirements determine whether the hospital bills Medicare for a clinical diagnostic laboratory test (CDLT) or whether the laboratory performing the test bills Medicare directly. When the 14-day rule applies, laboratory tests are not bundled into the hospital stay, but are instead paid separately under Medicare Part B to the testing laboratory.

Stakeholders expressed concerns about the current (2017) DOS policy because it requires hospitals to bill for tests they did not perform and that may have no relationship to or bearing on treatment received by the patient while in the hospital and it creates billing difficulties for the hospital. CMS agreed with these concerns and modified the date of service rule for hospital outpatients for molecular pathology tests and advanced diagnostic laboratory tests (ADLTs) that are not packaged under OPPS.  These types of lab test have a Status Indicator of “A” on Addendum B.

The new rule (from the 2018 OPPS Final Rule) states that in the case of a molecular pathology test or an ADLT, the DOS of the test must be the date the test was performed only if—

  • The test was performed following a hospital outpatient’s discharge from the hospital outpatient department;
  • The specimen was collected from a hospital outpatient during an encounter (as both are defined in 42 CFR 410.2);
  • It was medically appropriate to have collected the sample from the hospital outpatient during the hospital outpatient encounter;
  • The results of the test do not guide treatment provided during the hospital outpatient encounter; and
  • The test was reasonable and medically necessary for the treatment of an illness.

This new exception to the laboratory DOS policy does not apply to ADLT or molecular pathology tests when performed on a specimen collected from a hospital inpatient.

This new laboratory DOS policy will enable laboratories performing ADLTs and molecular pathology tests excluded from the OPPS packaging policy to bill Medicare directly for those tests, instead of requiring them to seek payment from the hospital outpatient department.  In fact, for molecular pathology tests and ADLTs meeting the above requirements, the DOS must be the date the test was performed and the test must be billed by the performing laboratory. Hospital laboratories cannot bill for these tests unless they perform them.”

Although the “new” lab DOS rule from the 2018 OPPS Final Rule described above was originally set to be implemented July 2, 2018, many hospitals and laboratories reported to CMS they were having administrative difficulties implementing the DOS exception. For that reason, CMS has repeatedly exercised enforcement discretion regarding the new rule, with the latest enforcement discretion in effect until January 2, 2020.

Because of continued concerns about the readiness of labs and hospitals to implement the new rule and additional concerns that some entities performing molecular pathology testing subject to the laboratory DOS exception, such as blood banks and blood centers, may not be enrolled in the Medicare program and may not have established a mechanism to bill Medicare directly, CMS is rethinking this DOS rule. In the 2020 OPPS Proposed Rule, they are seeking comments on three options for potential changes to the laboratory DOS exception.

  1. Changing the Test Results Requirements – Under this option, the test would be considered a hospital service unless the ordering physician determines that the test does not guide treatment during a hospital outpatient encounter.
  1. Limiting the Laboratory DOS Exception to ADLTs
  1. Excluding Blood Banks and Blood Centers from the Laboratory DOS Exception

These options would only affect the new lab DOS exception put forth in the 2018 OPPS Final Rule that applies to molecular pathology tests and ADLTs. The basic lab DOS rules and the 14-day rule DOS exception and the chemotherapy sensitivity test DOS exception would not be affected.

I encourage hospitals and laboratories affected by these date of service rules to read the discussion in the Proposed Rule and to submit comments to CMS. (Lab DOS Policy section begins on page 201 of 247 pages of the pdf printed version.)

Article Author: Debbie Rubio, BS MT (ASCP)
Debbie Rubio, BS MT (ASCP), was the Manager of Regulatory Affairs and Compliance at Medical Management Plus, Inc. Debbie has over twenty-seven years of experience in healthcare including nine years as the Clinical Compliance Coordinator at a large multi-facility health system. In her current position, Debbie monitors, interprets and communicates current and upcoming regulatory and compliance issues as they relate to specific entities concerning Medicare and other payers.

This material was compiled to share information.  MMP, Inc. is not offering legal advice. Every reasonable effort has been taken to ensure the information is accurate and useful.